Archiv für August 2003

ultimate testosterone

Donnerstag, 21. August 2003


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We found that all enzymes were expressed in all tissues, with patterns that partially predict a functional role for 5α-reductase in these birds, especially in both muscle and spinal cord of male manakins. Moreover, we found that 5β-reductase was markedly different between species, with far lower levels in golden-collared manakins, compared to zebra finches. Thus, modification to neuromuscular deactivation of T may also play a functional role in adaptive behavioral modulation. testosterone.

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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (PFS) was improved in the degarelix group (HR: 0.71; p=0.017). For patients with baseline PSA levels >20 ng/ml, the HR for PSA PFS was 0.74 (p=0.052). Overall survival (OS) was higher in the degarelix group (HR: 0.47; p=0.023). OS was particularly improved with degarelix in patients with baseline testosterone levels >2 ng/ml (HR: 0.36; p=0.006). In terms of disease-related adverse events, there were, overall, fewer joint-related signs and symptoms, musculoskeletal events, and urinary tract events in the degarelix group. testosterone.

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Serum concentrations of E2, P, and T (free fraction) were determined via chemoluminescence. The menstrual cycle phase was determined according to hormonal level and identification of an LH surge in urine. Pain threshold was evaluated with a dynamometer applied to the forearm skin of the nondominant limb and abdominal wall. testosterone.

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Reduction in reproductive potential of ganders with progress in seasonal breeding is a known problem in commercial geese production. The role of changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-gondal axis and testis functions in this process is not clear. This article presents studies on the hypothalamic (GnRH-I, vasoactive intestinal peptide), pituitary (LHβ, prolactin [PRL], PRL receptor [PRLR]), testis (PRLR) axis messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during different stages of the breeding period and photoperiodic conditions. Testis mass; histologic and functional (testosterone [T]) parameters; and plasma concentrations of T, LH, and PRL were evaluated. We collected (six times) samples from 2-year-old ganders (n = 48) maintained in short day (10L:14D) during the period from November to July. Moreover, in the peak of sexual activity (March), an additional group was on exposure (6 weeks) to long day (LD; 16L:8D). During the first half of reproduction (January, March; photosensitive period), GnRH-I (1.9 vs. 0.3 relative quantity [RQ]) and LHβ (3.0 vs. 0.7 RQ) mRNA transcript expression and concentrations of T (1.9-2.9 vs. 0.3 ng/mL), LH (13.6-7.4 vs. 0.7 ng/mL) were found to be higher (P < 0.05) than at the end of breeding (July). With progress in breeding, marked elevation (P < 0.05) in PRL (22.0-387.1 ng/mL) concentration related to similar changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide (0.9-3.0 RQ) and PRL mRNA abundance (1.3-11.5 RQ; May, July) was observed. However, testis PRLR mRNA increased (P < 0.05) only at the end of reproduction (1.2 RQ) compared to the peak of sexual activity (0.4 RQ; March). Furthermore, changes in mRNA transcript expression of the lactotrophic axis were accompanied with reduction of testis weight (left: 11.1-5.8 g), spermatogenesis (spermatogenic index: 5.4-3.0), and steroidogenesis (T: 24.8-1.3 ng/g testis), which may suggest their pivotal inhibitory modulation role in the regression of seasonal reproductive activity in ganders. The LD conditions (similar to spring-summer) resulted in earlier peripheral changes in T (0.9 vs. 1.8 ng/mL), LH (1.1 vs. 3.8 ng/mL), and PRL (296.1 vs. 161.2 ng/mL) concentrations than in short day, and this may be related to the advance in the timing of the sexual activity failure observed under natural light regimes. The lack of differences in gonadal and lactotrophic axis mRNA expression after LD treatment suggested a regulation based on the posttranslational mechanisms or modification of transcript or protein. testosterone.

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Perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) is a ubiquitous contaminant in the aquatic environment and our earlier studies demonstrated that chronic PFOS exposures lead to a female-biased sex ratio and decreased sperm quality in male zebrafish. The underlying mechanism for these reproductive effects is unknown. In the present study, 8 h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were exposed to PFOS at 250 μg/L for 5 months, and the levels of sex hormones, expression of sex determination related genes, and histological and ultrastructural changes of gonads were fully characterized. During the sex differentiation period, we observed elevated estradiol (E2) and decreased testosterone (T) levels in whole tissue homogenates from PFOS exposed juveniles. In fully mature adult male fish, serum E2 levels were slightly increased, however, the estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) was significantly elevated in PFOS treated male gonads. Histological and electron microscopic examinations revealed structural changes in the gonads of PFOS exposed male and female adult zebrafish. In summary, chronic PFOS exposure disrupts sex hormone level and related gene expression and impairs gonadal development, which may contribute to the previously reported PFOS reproductive toxicity. testosterone.

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